Let’s take a closer look at Ploughing in the Nivernais by Rosa Bonheur. It was Commissioned by the French government and won Bonheur a First Medal at the 1849 Paris Salon. It’s perhaps her most famous painting behind The Horse Fair which she painted a few years later in 1855. I’ll cover:
- Space, Balance, and Composition
- Direction and Movement
- Atmospheric Perspective
- Light and Shadow
- Key Takeaways
- Want to Learn More?
- Thanks for Reading!
It’s a large painting (52 by 100 inches) of a simple and strong subject. Oxen and farmers plough the land in the Nivernais region of France. The animals and land are depicted in an honest, almost romantic manner, as you would expect from Bonheur. The farmers actually take a backseat role in the painting, despite them leading the oxen. They appear small and insignificant compared to the oxen with their glistening fur and rippling muscles.
Today, you can see the painting at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris.
Space, Balance, and Composition
The first thing that strikes me about the painting is the play between busy and quiet space. The busy space being the oxen, farmers, and all the detail in the foreground. The quiet space being the open sky and distant hills. The busy space takes up less room in the painting, but it commands more attention. There’s an interesting sense of balance between this small area of busy space and the large area of quiet space.
Usually, I would suggest you do more with the sky, even if it’s just some subtle, visible brushwork. But, Bonheur’s approach works well here as it plays into the idea of a vast, open sky on a calm day. It also ensures that attention is not pulled away from the more important areas: the oxen and farmers.
Tip: Always consider the role that each area plays in the overall painting. Match your approach to the role. In this case, Bonheur used flat and smooth brushwork to convey the open sky, but this approach might not work as well for a moody, overcast day.
The painting is a great demonstration of how you can use space, balance, and composition to influence the overall feel of your painting and how you can convey the subject in a certain light or manner. All the open space gives the painting a quiet and almost serene feel. It also gives the landscape a strong role in the painting, rather than it merely being part of the background.
Consider what the painting would look like had Bonheur zoomed in on a few of the oxen and farmers. The overall feel would be completely different. It would be more dramatic and intimate and it would place more focus on the individual characteristics and traits of those farmers and oxen. We would see the strain on their faces and the tension in their muscles. And what were small details are now significant details (look at the saliva dripping from the ox’s mouth below and the detail of horns and hair).
Tip: One of our jobs as artists is to use space, balance, and composition to convey the subject in a certain light or to push certain ideas about the subject. If these are not aligned, the artwork won’t be as compelling or honest and it won’t say what you want it to say.
Direction and Movement
There’s a broad sense of direction and movement to the right-hand side of the painting. The oxen and farmers are all ploughing this way. The hill on the left extends this motion and makes it curved rather than straight (curves tend to be more interesting than straight lines; curves inject fluidity, whereas straight lines are rigid and static).
Notice how this broad movement leads our eyes out of the painting. This goes against composition theory, which suggests you should use movement and direction to retain a viewer’s gaze within the painting. But it works in this case, as it hints at the long path ahead and all the work still to be done. Also, we aren’t that curious about what is to the right as we can assume it’s more of the same.
There is some slight resistance against the broad movement to the right. See how one of the farmers is gesturing to the side and one of the oxen is turning its head slightly outwards (circled below). This resistance is subtle but important. It adds a hint of tension to the painting.
The painting is a great demonstration of atmospheric perspective. It’s a clear, sunny day with a few clouds in the sky. As we move through the painting into the distance, the colors get weaker and cooler and the details get vaguer. This also softens the contrast and strengthens the harmony between the distant colors.
Tip: A good rule of thumb for atmospheric perspective is that an object will gradually take on the appearance of the surrounding atmosphere as it recedes into the distance. So, step one should always be to identify the atmosphere of the scene.
The effects of atmospheric perspective provide us with valuable insights into the relative distance of areas and the overall layout of the landscape. The rich and full colors and the sharp contrast in the foreground tell us this area is close in perspective. They also help focus our attention on this area and the oxen and farmers. The hill on the left is a touch cooler and weaker than the foreground, but much richer than the hills at the back. This gives us an idea of how close the hill on the left is and how far away the hills in the back are. The color gradation on the other side of the painting (the right side) is much smoother, suggesting the land is relatively flat. The color gradation in the sky plays into the idea of a vast, open sky (no or little gradation typically suggests we are looking at a smaller section of the sky).
Light and Shadow
The painting has strong lights and strong shadows, with the shadows leaning to the right. This tells us the sunlight is strong, direct, and coming from the left.
Tip: The nature and position of the lights and shadows provide significant information about the dominant light source. It’s important to get these details right.
The lights are slightly warm compared to the shadows (following the warm lights, cool shadows rule of thumb). This is most evident with the prominent white ox in front of us. Notice how the lights are a toucher warmer and closer to yellow and the shadows are a touch cooler and closer to blue. There’s a contrast not only value (light against dark) but also temperature (warm against cool). When you overlay multiple points of contrast like this, the contrast is enhanced.
The highlights are crisp but not overstated. Bonheur used them to convey light reflecting off fur, the white clothing in light, and as accents around the mouths and eyes of the oxen.
For the fur, notice how the scattered nature of the highlights helps convey the irregular and rough nature of the fur and how Bonheur built up to the highlights rather than jumping straight to them. They are just a touch lighter than the light mid-tones.
You might also consider the light parts of the clouds to be highlights, but only in isolation. They are fairly restrained compared to the highlights in the foreground. This conveys atmospheric perspective and pushes the clouds back in terms of attention.
Below is the painting in grayscale (using my grid and grayscale tool). This reveals a few additional insights:
- The white oxen are much lighter than the rest of the painting, even the sky.
- The white oxen on the left are a touch darker than those on the right.
- The land in the foreground and the hill on the left are similar in value, simplifying the area into one large mass.
I also created a two-value notan of the painting using Photoshop. This is what the painting looks like in its most abstract form. It’s a simple and strong design that reiterates the broad motion to the right-hand side. But, it’s sloping down rather than up.
Bonheur’s brushwork is careful and refined, but it still has painterly qualities. For areas out of focus, she used simplified brushwork and focused more so on abstract shapes. For areas in focus, she used more intricate and varied brushwork. She also used a few feature details and strokes to give context to the surroundings. For example, look at the oxen’s hair and the scattered grass in the foreground. She didn’t paint every strand of hair and grass. She painted just a few and let them do most of the work.
Here are some close-ups:
Here are some of the key takeaways from this painting:
- Large paintings command attention. If painting for an exhibition, consider going large to make a powerful statement.
- A single painting can dramatically propel your art career, as this one did for Bonheur. The challenge is, to produce this standout work requires creating hundreds, maybe thousands of artworks that largely go unnoticed.
- You can use space, balance, and composition to influence the overall feel of your painting and to say what you want to say about the subject.
- A good rule of thumb for atmospheric perspective is that an object will gradually take on the appearance of the surrounding atmosphere as it recedes into the distance. The detail will also get vaguer.
- Notan can be a valuable tool for revealing “hidden” underlying structures and patterns in a painting.
- Realism doesn’t mean you must paint every single detail with a tiny liner brush. You can simplify some of the detail and paint with broad strokes.
Want to Learn More?
Thanks for Reading!
I appreciate you taking the time to read this post and I hope you found it helpful. Feel free to share it with friends. Let me know your thoughts on the painting in the comments.
Draw Paint Academy